Intrinsic Losses refer to any losses that occur in a cable due to inherent characteristics of the fiber itself, such as absorption, scattering, and splice loss. Absorption is the loss of optical power due to absorption of the light by the material of the fiber. Scattering is the scattering of light from the fiber due to impurities in the fiber material. Splice loss is the loss of optical power due to connecting two fibers together.
Absorption loss occurs when the light from a laser passes through the fiber and is absorbed by the material of the fiber. This absorption occurs at certain wavelengths, and the amount of absorption varies for different types of fibers. The more impurities present in the material, the higher the absorption loss.
Scattering loss is caused when light is scattered off of the impurities within the fiber due to irregularities in the material. This scattering is random and reduces the amount of light that is transmitted through the fiber.
Splice loss is the loss of optical power due to connecting two fibers together. This occurs when the cladding of the two fibers is not perfectly aligned, which causes light to be lost as it passes through the splice.
In order to reduce intrinsic losses, fiber manufacturers use higher-quality fiber material and improved processes for connecting the fibers. This allows for fewer impurities in the fiber material and improved alignment when connecting the fibers. Additionally, fiber manufacturers often use special coatings to reduce the amount of absorption that occurs. By reducing these losses, the performance of the cable is improved and the transmission of the signal is more reliable.