Hydrogen losses refer to the increase in fiber connector attenuation that occurs when hydrogen diffuses into the glass matrix of a cable. This phenomenon is the result of the absorption of some light by the hydrogen atoms as it diffuses through the cable. Hydrogen losses are especially relevant for cables that are exposed to high temperatures, as this will cause the hydrogen to become more mobile and move more freely through the material.
When hydrogen atoms move into the glass matrix of the cable, they absorb some of the light that is transmitted through it, causing a decrease in the power of the signal. This decrease in signal power is known as attenuation, and the amount of attenuation is measured in decibels (dB). The amount of attenuation will vary depending on the type of cable and the amount of hydrogen that has diffused into the glass matrix.
Hydrogen losses can be minimized by using special glass types, coatings, and designs that prevent the hydrogen from diffusing into the cable. Additionally, using cable designs with a low index of refraction (which reduces the amount of light that is lost due to refraction) can also help to reduce hydrogen losses.
Overall, hydrogen losses can be a significant factor in the performance of optical fiber cables, especially those exposed to high temperatures. Understanding and minimizing these losses is essential for ensuring the optimal performance of fiber optic cables.